學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙 R 為開頭的字彙 Common Mistakes in Academic English Writing: Words Beginning with the Letter R

誤解的字彙 R 為開頭的字彙

米德佳提供中翻英學術論文翻譯,含學術寫作英文編修。

race
race (RAYS) (noun)
1. A current of water flowing through a narrow channel, often in an industrial context: “The mill race was created by damming the river and diverting the flow of the water.”
2. A contest of speed based on a set course and specific time frame: “The cross country race was set to begin this afternoon and the runners would pass through both flat land and hills before returning to the starting gate.”
3. A rivalry or contest between two or more groups with the goal of winning something; such as, a pennant: “The two colleges participated in an annual race for the pennant and the prize money.”
4. A track or groove through which something slides or rolls: “The ball bearings rolled down the race and into the gear box for the car.”
race (RAYS) (verb)
1. To run or participate in a competition based on speed and timing: “The team decided to race in spite of the mist and cold weather.”
2. To move at maximum speed: “Jillian’s cousin will race his car around the track in hopes of breaking the speed record.”
race (RAYS) (noun)
1. A family or group of people united by common characteristics or interests: “The Nordic race has a history of bravery and seafaring explorations.”
2. A grouping of people sharing traits that are passed on through generations and whose traits have become distinctive to that group: “Typically the Aboriginal race in North America has darker hair than Europeans.”

rack 及 wrack
rack (RAK) (noun)
1. High clouds that are blown about by the wind: “Sean could see the rack of clouds moving across the sky.”
2. An instrument or tool designed for torture so as to cause extreme pain: “The museum had an example of a rack that was used for torture during the Middle Ages.”
3. The manger for holding food for livestock: “The rack was filled with fresh hay for the cattle.”
4. A net or framework to be placed in a river to catch fish or floating matter: “The forester installed the rack in the polluted stream in hopes of gathering up the flotsam that was floating in the river.”
5. Antlers, typically in sets of two, from such animals as moose: “There was a fine rack of antlers displayed in the museum of wild life from the park.”
wrack (RAK) (noun)
1. Violent destruction of something: “The storm is so violent tonight that Alisha fear it will cause the wrack of the quay in the harbor.”
2. Seaweed or kelp: “Karl watched the people of the seaside village harvest wrack and sell it as a crop.”
“Once Maribel had some wrack pie, an experience she never wants to repeat.”
wrack (RAK) (verb)
To ruin or to destroy completely: “The loss of his livestock will wrack the farmer and he may have to sell his farm.”

racket 及 racquet
racket (RAK it) (noun)
1. A clattering noise or excitement: “Luis could hear quite a racket in the hall and wondered what was going on.”
2. An illegal scheme or enterprise involving fraud: “Patricia was a member of a criminal racket.”
3. Light weight sports equipment consisting of a handle at one end and a net of thread or gut in an oval shape at the other end which is typically used to bat a tennis ball or a badminton shuttlecock back and forth with an opponent: “Antonio uses an aluminum racket which has helped to improve his tennis game considerably.”
racket (RAK it) (verb)
1. To celebrate in a loud, boisterous manner: “After the game Earl and Jim plan to racket down the street to the pub.”
2. To hit a ball or shuttlecock back and forth between players: “Tamika and her sister racket a tennis ball every day for an hour.”
racquet (RAK it) (noun)
An alternative spelling for racket usually occurring in the plural to refer to a game involving two to four players; including, a racket (racquet), a ball, and played within a walled court: “Victor grabbed his racquet and dashed to the tennis courts to play for an hour with his brother.”

rail
rail (RAYL) (noun)
1. Any of a number of wading birds (Rallidae) similar to cranes but typically smaller with short round wings and long toes for running in the mud of the swamps where they live: “Latasha went on a bird expedition and saw a rare rail in the swamp.”
2. The fencing for a racetrack: “The crowd pressed against the rail during the excitement of the race.”
3. A pole extending between two posts and whose function is to create a barrier: “The new rail at the gate was painted bright red.”
rail (RAYL) (noun)
1. One of the bars of steel that form a train’s track: “The workers found a cracked rail on the intercity train’s track today.”
2. A system of traveling by train: “Walter has to travel back and forth from his town to the city by rail every working day.”
rail (RAYL) (verb)
1. To complain angrily about something: “The old man felt he had to rail at the doctor because as a patient he waited two hours and was still unable see anyone for a medical examination.”
2. To use harsh or abusive language: “Trisha could hear the actress rail against the director even though she was not in the room.”
3. To install fencing: “The project of the day was to rail the corral for the horses that were being delivered next week.”

rain, reign 及 rein
rain (RAYN) (verb)
To give in an abundant manner: “During the holidays, Josie’s relatives tend to rain presents on her because she is the only child.”
rain (RAYN) (noun)
Drops of water formed by the condensation of vapor and which falls from the atmosphere: “As Ryan stood by the window, he watched the rain begin to fall on the lawn.”
“It started to rain before Tracy could put up her umbrella.”
reign (RAYN) (noun)
1. The time during which an individual who is considered royalty holds political influence or control: “The reign of the king lasted over forty years and was believed to be a peaceful time in the country.”
2. A prevalent or common occurrence: “At the end of the school year, the reign of confusion was wide spread as the students cleaned their lockers and said goodbye to their friends and teachers.”
reign (RAYN) (verb)
To possess a position of presumed authority, often without much actual political influence or power: “Ronda will reign as consort until her son is old enough to be the king.”
rein (RAYN) (noun)
1. A controlling or restraining influence: “Albert kept a tight rein on the finances of the town so there would be no wasteful spending.”
2. Unhampered opportunity: “Delories was given free rein in planning the party for the end of the year.”
3. The strap which is fastened to the bit in an animal’s mouth and by which the animal is controlled or directed: “Sallie held each rein for her horse in her right hand as she mounted it.”
rein (RAYN) (verb)
To stop or to slow oneself or an animal: “Pete had to rein in his enthusiasm for the new book because he was about to bore all his friends.”

raise, rays 及 raze
raise (RAYZ) (verb)
1. To lift something or someone to a higher position: “A small box to stand on will raise the speaker so she can speak comfortably into the microphone.”
2. To elevate in terms of status or position: “The promotion will raise Pete’s colleague to a managerial position at the factory.”
3. To enhance or to invigorate: “Such a sunny day will raise Jill’s spirits.”
4. To collect funds to finance a special undertaking: “Carl hopes to raise a large sum of money to contribute to the children’s charity.”
5. To bring an animal or child to maturity: “There is a saying which indicates that it takes a village to raise a child.”
6. To question or to bring forth a topic for discussion or debate: “Terry said he would raise the question of new prices for bus tickets at the next board meeting.”
7. To cause the creation of a blister or sore: “If Marissa does not wear gloves when she rakes leaves, the friction will raise blisters on her hands.”
8. To increase the bid or offer on something: “At the auction, the auctioneer attempted to raise the bids on the priceless piece of silver.”
9. To increase or to cause the elevation of the level or baseline of something: “The heavy rains will raise the level of the river.”
“The landlord told Etta that he was going to raise her rent significantly next year.”
raise (RAYZ) (noun)
An increase in the amount of money paid for a task or undertaking: “With her new position, Andriana asked for a raise in her salary.”
rays (RAYZ) (noun)
1. Any of a number of fish with flattened bodies and their eyes appearing on the flat upper surfaces: “Dennis could see a colony of rays drifting in the bay not far from his boat.”
2. Beams of light: “The sun rays shined through the window illuminating the room and making it feel warm and comfortable.”
3. Lines drawn from a common center: “Shelby depicted the sun by drawing several rays emanating from the round yellow circle in the corner of her picture.”
raze (RAYZ) (verb)
To demolish, tear down, or to reduce something: “The bull dozers will raze the grove this afternoon to make way for new buildings.”
“The carver used a small knife to raze the surface of the block of wood he was working on so he could make an ornament.”

ramp 及 rant
ramp (RAMP) (noun)
1. An inclined surface or roadway connecting different levels: “She increased her speed as she entered the ramp leading onto the highway.”
2. A mobile staircase by which passengers board and leave an aircraft: “The airline steward stood at the base of the ramp, assisting the passengers as they departed from the plane.”
3. A concave bend of a handrail where a sharp change in level or direction occurs; such as, at a stair landing: “She held onto the ramp as she went down the stairs to make sure that she wouldn’t fall.”
ramp (RAMP) (verb)
To increase or to cause something to increase in speed, size, etc.: “The work started slowly, but now the participants will ramp it up to full speed.”
“The company will simply have to ramp up production in order to complete the orders.”
rant (RANT) (verb)
To talk loudly and in a way that shows anger: “Mark, you can rant and rave all you want, but it’s not going to change anything.”
rant (RANT) (noun)
An unreasonable complaint: “Just about every day, Trina had to listen to Jack’s rant about the evils of the auto industry.”

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英文學術寫作上常誤用及誤解的字彙

誤解的字彙 R

S 為開頭的字彙

T 為開頭的字彙

U 為開頭的字彙