英文文法-主動被動

主動被動

主動與被動的判斷是動詞中很重要的觀念,通常我們可以借助下列三個線索來判斷主動被動:

 

1. 若動詞後有名詞片語(NP),則幾乎都用主動語態,即“S+ V+ NP”,但consider(認為),call(稱呼)及name(命名)例外,這種動詞可能用被動。

例:

1. Hundreds of people visit the Washington Monument(華盛頓紀念碑) every day. (the Washington Monument為NP,請注意,凡是由冠詞、所有格、數目字所引導的片語皆為名詞片語。)

2. We consider him an artist.

3. He is considered an artist.

 

2. 若動詞後面有by,且by表達“被”、“由”,則用被動語態,但by若表達“藉著”、“在‥之旁”、“到‥為止”,則要拉主詞跟動詞的意思,才能判斷主動或被動。

例:

1. The Old Man and the Sea was written by Earnest Hemingway.

2. He passes by the park every morning. (從‥旁邊)

3. He passed the examination by studying hard. (藉著)

4. I shall have lived in Taipei for 10 years by next week. (到‥為止)

 

3. 若動詞後沒有NP,也沒有by,則需利用主詞與動詞語意上的關係來判斷主動或被動。

例:

1. The house was built in 1940.

2. The plan was carried out successfully.

3. Many people enjoy working at night.

此外,要特別注意有些動詞只用主動語態(常考的有happen, occur, take place“發生”,exist“存在”,die“死”,cost“價錢是‥”,rain, appear, seem, belong to , consist of“由‥組成”等),另外有些則用於被動語態,如be exposed to(暴露在‥之下),be supposed to(應該),be located(位於)等等。

例:

1. The idea appeared to me in my dream.

2. Dinosaurs(恐龍) existed millions of years ago.

3. The book consists of fifteen chapters.

 

英文文法目錄

主動被動

英文文法-

時態

動詞補語

代名詞的格,反身代詞