英文文法-副詞子句的簡化

副詞子句的簡化

 

引導副詞子句且可以進行簡化之連接詞為(a)表“雖然”:although, though, while, even if, even though;(b)表“時間”:when, while;(c)表“條件”:if, unless;(d)表“因為”:because等。我們以although為例來說明這類副詞子句的簡化過程:

 

步驟(一):若副詞子句的主詞與主要子句的主詞相等,則將副詞子句的主詞去掉,若不相等則不能省略,連接詞則可省略亦可保留。
步驟(二):若動詞為be動詞,則將be動詞省略;若為其它動詞則改為分詞,主動用現在分詞,被動用過去分詞;若動詞為完成式,則改為having+ p.p.
請思考下列句子的簡化:
1. If weather permits, we will go on a picnic.
→Weather permitting, we will go on a picnic. (主詞不相等,故weather要保留)
2. While I understand what you say, I can not agree with you.
→While understanding what you say, I can not agree with you. (現在分詞)
3. Although he is rich and powerful, he is not happy.
→Although rich and powerful, he is not happy. (形容詞片語)
4. While he was a professor in Taiwan University, he was devoted to the study of biology.
→While a professor in Taiwan University, he was devoted to the study of biology. (名詞片語,此名詞片語語意要等於主詞)
5. When he was in New York, he enjoyed going to the museum once a week.
→When in New York, he enjoyed going to the museum once a week. (介系詞片語)
6. A bear will not attack people unless it is provoked(被激怒).
→A bear will not attack people unless provoked. (過去分詞片語)
連接詞若保留有個好處,即語意上會更為明確,但because所引導的子句若簡化則because一定要省略。
例:
1. Because Jack has lived here all his life, he knows the city well.
→Having lived here all his life, he knows the city well.
2. Because he was ill, he stayed in bed.
→Being ill, he stayed in bed.
(在“Because+ S+ be+ Adj”的簡化式中,be動詞可改為being)
                                     NP

 

常考結構思考:
1. ____, S+ VP. 在這種情況下,空格內可能用的結構為(a)副詞子句,(b)名詞片語(語意上要等於主要子句的主詞),(c)介系詞片語,(d)分詞(主動用現在分詞,被動用過去詞)。此外,若表達“目的”,則用不定詞片語。

 

2.
Although
Though
While
Even if                        +____, S+ VP.
Even though
When
If
Unless
空格原為“S+ VP”之子句,經簡化後可成為(a)介系詞片語,(b)分詞片語,(c)名詞片語(語意上要等於主詞)

 

3.
Despite                  +名詞片語,S+ VP.
In spite of
In                            +名詞片語,S+ VP.
During

 

despite 與 in spite of 表達“雖然”,in與during表達“當…”,皆介系詞,後面接的名詞片語在語意上不等於主詞。
例:
1. Despite his illness, he went to the meeting. (illness不等於he)
2. During his visit to New York, my uncle spent most of his time in museums. (visit不等於my uncle)

 

4. Ving
p.p., S+ VP
在考詴中,我們常常要有能力去判斷空格內的分詞,這時便要應用到主動、被動的觀念:(a)若分詞後面有名詞片語(主要是由冠詞、所有格、數目字所引導的結構),則表達主動,要用現在分詞;(b)若分詞後面by,則強烈表達被動,要用過去分詞;(c)若分詞後面沒有NP,也沒有by,則拉分詞與主要子句主詞的關係,由語意上來判斷。
例:
1. Inspired by his father, John decided to be a doctor.
2. Hearing the bell ring, we departed hastily.
3. Feeling tired, you can take a rest. (拉you與feel之關係)
4. Working in the garden, he saw a snake. (拉he與work之關係)

 

5. Ving , S+ VP.
To+原形動詞
若語意表達動作正在進行則用Ving,若表達目的則用不定詞。
例:
1. Walking down the street, I met John.
2. To pass the exam, he studied hard.

 

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