英文文法-一致

一致

 

一致可歸納為下列幾種情況:

 

1. 代名詞與先行詞的一致:代名詞與先行詞在人稱、帄複數及性別上要一致。
請思考下列句子劃線代名詞與先行詞是否一致:
1. Dolphins (海豚) are warm-blooded (暖血的);that is, its body temperature always stays the same. (將its改為their,先行詞為dolphins)
2. Everyone should try your best to finish the work. (先行詞為everyone,改為his)

 

2. 主詞與動詞的一致:主詞與動詞在單複數上要一致。
例:
1. Many a ship has (=Many ships have) sunk during the storm.
2. The United Nations is an international organization. (專有名詞指單數)
3. Mathematics gives me so much trouble. (學科指單數)
4. One of my dogs was lost last weekend. (主詞為One)
5. There is little equipment in that hospital.
There are some students in the classroom.
There has been little change since he moved here. (在“There+ be+ NP”的結構中,動詞的單複數由後面名詞片語(NP)決定)
6. To tell lies is a bad habit.
Making right choices demands wisdom and courage. (不定詞或動名詞片語指整個動作,為單數觀念)
7. How they will do it is not important.
Where he lived is still a mystery. (名詞子句指整件事情,亦為單數觀念)
8. One-third of the students were absent.
All of my money was stolen.
More than ten percent of the people in the world suffer from hunger. (請參考第四章第二節要點5)

 

3. 時態的一致:動詞時態要與時間副詞一致,類似last week, last year, four years ago, in 1970等等皆為重要的時間副詞。若沒有時間副詞,則可能藉另外一個動詞來判斷。而表達事實真理則用現在簡單式。
例:
1. In 1845, all towns in the country were required to have school.
2. He passed away (過世) at the age of sixty.
3. When I dropped the cup, the coffee spilled (灑) on my lap (大腿).
4. We have known each other since we were kids.
5. Spiders have eight legs. (表事實)
6. fire is hot and ice is cold. (表事實)

 

4. 補語與先行詞的一致:若用名詞片語(NP)當補語,則此NP在語意上要等於先行詞。常考之結構為(a)S+ be+ NP. (當主詞補語),(b)S+ V (如consider, make)+O+ NP. (當受詞補語),(c)NP, S+ VP. (當主詞同位語)
請修改下列各句劃線部份:
1. The book is interest and use. (interest與use不等於book,故改為interesting與useful)
2. John Dewey is one of the greatest educations in the twentieth century. (education不等於John Dewey,故改為educators)
3. The story made me sadness. (sadness不等於me,故改為sad)
4. A tall man with blue eyes, John Smith is known for his poems. (本句成立,man等於John Smith)

 

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英文文法目錄

一致

英文文法-

累贅

容易混淆的用字

常考的重要句型