1. some ~ any：some用於肯定句，any則可用於肯定、否定、疑問等句子。
Some boys are more diligent than others.
There won’t be any difficulty.
Do you have any questions?
Give me any book.
2. arrive ~ get ~ reach (到達)
(b) get to+地方
1. They arrived in New York at 2：30 p.m. yesterday.
= They got to New York at 2：30 p.m. yesterday.
= They reached New York at 2：30 p.m. yesterday.
3. lend (借出) ~ borrow (借入)
(a) lend+人+物 = lend+物+to+人
I lent him a lot of money. = I lent a lot of money to him.
We borrowed several books from the library.
4. lack (缺乏) = be short of：lack為及物動詞，後面不要再加介系詞。
結構：S+ lack+物 = S+ be short of+物
We lacked some important information.
The firm(公司) is short of capital (資金).
5. spend ~ take ~ cost (花費)
(1) 人+spend+ money或time+ Ving (某人花錢(或時間)做…)
(2) It+ takes+人+time+ to+原形動詞 (花某人…時間去做…)
(3) It+ costs+人+money+ to+原形動詞 (花某人…金錢去做…)
He spent most of his time writing this book.
He spent most of his time on this book.
It took him five days to write the report.
It cost millions of dollars to buy the house.
S+ be+ noted +for+ O (以…著名)
renowned as+ O
若用 as 則O = S，若用for則O不等於S。
William Shakespeare is known as a dramatist (劇作家).
William Shakespeare is known for his dramas.
7. as well as (=and) ~ as well (=too, also)：as well as為對等連接詞，引導前後帄行對稱的結構，as well為副詞，擺在句尾。
Robert is good at French as well as German.
We are going to the concert and Steve is coming as well.
8. according to ~ according as (根據)：according to為介系詞，而according as為副詞連接詞。
(a) According to +NP, S+ VP.
(b) According as +S+ VP, S+ VP.
According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.
According as scientists predict, another earthquake might happen soon.
9. as a result (因此) ~ as a result of (因為)
(a) As a result, S+ VP.
(b) As a result of+ NP, S+ VP.
He didn’t study hard. As a result, he failed in many courses.
As a result of his illness, he didn’t go to school.
10. in addition ~ in addition to (此外)
(a) In addition, S+ VP.
(b) In addition to+ NP, S+ VP.
In addition, he has to study Spanish.
In addition to English, he has to study Spanish.
11. even (甚至) ~ even though (縱然) ~ even when (縱使當…)：even為副詞，所引導的子句為獨立子句，而even though與even when為從屬連接詞，所引導的子句不能單獨存在。
(a) Even+ S+ VP.
(b) Even though+ S+ VP, S+ VP.
(c) Even when+ S+ VP, S+VP.
Even a child can figure out (想出) the answer.
Even though you fail, we will still support you.
結構：A+ marry+ B (A與B結婚，不能用 with)
例： My aunt is going to marry with a doctor. (with 要去掉)
13. Since ~ for
(a) S+ have+ p.p.+ since+ S+過去簡單式 (自從…尌一直…_
(b) S+ have+ p.p.+ for+一段時間 (…以來尌一直…)
We have been friends since we were kids.
I haven’t seen him since five years ago.
My father has worked for that company for twenty years.
14. as ~ like (像)：as表達“像”為副詞連接詞，後面接子句或介系詞片語，like為介系詞，後面接名詞片語。
As I have told you, he is deeply interested in psychology.
As in the past, people have tried to understand the mystery of the universe.
On hearing the news, he cried like a baby.
15. after ~ afterwards：可當介系詞或從屬連接詞，afterwards則為時間副詞，所引導的是獨立子句。
(a) After+ NP, S+ VP. (=S+ VP+ after+ NP，介系詞片語常常可以移動)
(b) After+ S+ VP, S+ VP. (=S+ VP+ after+ S+ VP，after為從屬連接詞)
(c) Afterwards, S+ VP.
We left after midnight. (after為介系詞)
After he closed the windows, he went to bed. (after為副詞連接詞)
Afterwards (後來) he went to see a movie.
16. include ~ contain ~ comprise (包涵；包括)
include included in
A+ contain + B = B+ be+ contained in + A
comprise comprised of
The book includes fifteen chapters.
= Fifteen chapters are included in the book.
17. how ~ however
(a) how+ S+ VP (表達“如何”，為名詞子句)
(b) how+ adj+ S+ V (表達“多麼…”，為名詞子句)
(c) However+ adj +S+ VP, S+ VP. (表達“不管多麼…”，為副詞子句)
(d) However, S+ VP (表達“然而”，引導獨立子句)
How he will do it is not my business.
You can’t imagine how sad he is.
However cold it is, he goes swimming.
He is wealthy. However, he is not happy.
18. when ~ wherever：whenever“不管何時”，wherever“不管何處”前面不能有先行詞。
He began his business in 1970 whenever he was only twenty nine. (whenever改為when)
He stayed in Paris wherever he had some friends. (wherever改為when)
19. drown (淹死) ~ die (死)：這兩個動詞要使用主動語態。
The boy drowned in the lake.
The writer died on a morning in August, 1940.
hard (辛苦地) ~ hardly (幾乎不)
near (接近某地) ~ nearly (大約)
formally (正式地) ~ formerly (以前)
just (剛剛) ~ justly (公正地)
They lived near the station.
It took nearly two months to finish the work.
You have been working too hard.
We could hardly get out of the house.
She was formerly manager of a textile company. (紡織廠)
21. most ~ mostly：most可當形容詞或名詞，表達“大部份”，若當副詞則表達“最”，mostly 純粹是副詞，表達“大部份地”，“主要地”。
Most of the books are sold out. (名詞)
Most students did not understand what he said. (形容詞)
John is the most diligent student in the class. (副詞)
They went to America mostly for studying English. (副詞)
22. between (兩者之間) ~ among (三者以上之間)
He lives between the post office and the police station.
Divide the money among the six of you.
23. lie (躺，位於，在於，不及物動詞) ~ lay (放，產卵，及物動詞)
He lay on the grass reading a book. (躺)
They laid the injured child on the bed. (放)
A fish can lay thousands of eggs a time. (產卵)
24. already ~ yet：already用於肯定句，yet用於疑問或否定句。
He has already made up his mind.
They haven’t yet reached any agreement.
25. considerate (體貼的) ~ considerable (相當多的)
We should be considerate to the old people.
She got a considerable amount of money from his uncle.
26. tell ~ say ~ speak ~ talk
S+ say+ to+人 +名詞子句
(b) S+ say+ that+ S+ V
He told the police where he had seen the criminal.
I said to him that the meeting was delayed.
My father always says that honesty is the best policy.
27. economic (經濟上的) ~ economical (節儉的)
industrial (工業上的) ~ industrious (勤勞的)
The country is in a bad economic state.
It’s more economical to travel by train than by plane.
28. rise ~ raise
The price of bread has risen by 15%.
I cannot hear you. Please raise your voice.
They raised a lot of questions at meeting.
The farmer raises many different kinds of fruit.
29. effect ~ affect
The plan was successfully effected.
Weather has a great effect on our feelings.
Smoking affects health.
30. some (一些，某一個) ~ certain (一些，某一個)
There are some (=certain) differences between these two novels.
Some person (=A certain person) called on me last night.