英文文法-分詞

分詞

 

分詞是由動詞變化而來,可分為現在分詞 (Ving) 與過去分詞 (Ven) 。分詞可具有形容詞功用,以修飾名詞或作補語;分詞亦可作副詞,以修飾動詞或整個子句。

 

1. 分詞當形容詞,以修飾名詞或當補語,可分為下列幾種情況:
(a) Ving
Ven+N:
這種結構分詞是修飾後面的名詞,表達主動或進行用現在分詞,表達被動或完成用過去分詞。
例:
1. He told us some frightening stories. (令人害怕的,表示主動)。
2. The wounded soldier was taken off to hospital. (受傷的,表示被動)。
3. A rolling stone gathers no moss. (滾石不生苔) (滾動的,表示進行)。
4. He threw away the broken chair. (破的,表示完成)。
上列結構要判斷主動被動,進行完成,通常要拉後面名詞與分詞的關係。上列各句的分詞結構可作適度轉換,frightening stories = stories which are frightening, the wounded soldier = the soldier who was wounded, a rolling stone = a stone which is rolling, the broken chair = the chair which has broken.

 

(b) N+ Ving
Ven
這種結構分詞置於名詞的後面,通常是由形容詞子句簡化而成的分詞片語。主動語態用現在分詞,被動語態用過去分詞。
例:
1. The girl wearing a hat is Mary. (a hat為名詞片語,故前面分詞應為主動語態)
= The girl who is wearing a hat is Mary.
2. It is a famous book written by Henry James. (by得知為被動)
= It is a famous book which was written by Henry James.
3. The bridge built in 1910 was torn down. (拉build與bridge之關係,得知為被動)
= The bridge which was built in 1910 was torn down.
再度提醒您,上列分詞結構一定要懂得判斷主動被動,若還有困惑可參考第二章第二節(主動被動的判斷)。

 

(c) be
S+ feel + Ving:
become Ven
這種結構的分詞是由情緒動詞變化而來的,若用事物作主詞,表達“令人‥”則為主動觀念,用現在分詞;若用人作主詞,表達“感到‥”則為被動觀念,用過去分詞。
例:
1. We are surprised at the result.
2. After a long day’s work, John felt exhausted. (精疲力盡的)
3. The movie was exciting.
4. His stories are always interesting.
註:這類情緒動詞尚包括tire(疲倦), confuse(困惑), puzzle(困惑), fascinate(吸引), disappoint(失望), touch(感動), move(感動), embarrass(困窘), frighten(驚嚇)等。

 

2. 分詞當副詞,以修飾動詞或整個子句,主動語態用現在分詞,被動語態則用過去分詞。
(a) Ving
Ven, S+VP:
此種結構分詞是修飾後面整個子句。
例:
1. Writing a letter, he heard somebody coming. (關鍵在a letter為名詞片語,故為主動觀念,用現在分詞)
2. Frightened by the explosion(爆炸聲),the children began to cry. (關鍵在by,故用過去分詞)
3. Walking on the street, I met John. (本句walking後面沒有名詞片語,也沒有by,故拉主詞I與walk之關係,得知應為主動觀念,故用現在分詞)
4. Written in simple English, the book soon became popular. (拉book與write之關係)。

 

(b) S+ V+ Ving
Ven :
此種結構分詞用來修飾動詞,判斷的關鍵亦在主動被動的觀念。
例:
1. The woman came here wearing a red hat.
2. My friend entered the room singing and laughing.

 

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英文文法目錄

分詞

英文文法-

否定用字

介系詞的結構特性及功用

容易混淆的介系詞