英文文法-基本句型

基本句型

任何句子不管多長皆是一些基本句型衍生而來的,只要介定出主要子句的動詞,即可以了解該句是屬於何種基本句型。以下即針對基本句型做簡要的分析:

 

1. S+ Vi (完全不及物動詞句型):不及物動詞的重點在於後面不能直接跟受詞,若要加受詞則應先加介系詞,即“S+ Vi+介系詞+受詞”。
例:
1. The men are working. →The men are working in that textile factory. (紡織廠)
2. The audience laughed. →The audience laughed at him.
3. Some students were talking. →Some students were talking to their teacher.

 

2. S+ Vt+ O (完全及物動詞句型):完全及物動詞的重點在於後面要直接跟受詞,不能有介系詞。
例:
1. Uncle Harry wrote the book.
2. The employer and workers have reached an agreement.
3. He made a lot of money by selling stocks. (股票)

 

3. S+ Vt+ O+OC (不完全及物動詞句型):此種動詞的重點在於受詞(O)後面應有形容詞或名詞來作受詞補語(OC),語意上才算完整。語類動詞包含下列幾種意思:(a)表達“認為”,如think, consider, believe, find, regard, take, (b)表達“使‥”,如make, (c)表達“命名、稱呼”,如name, call。
例:
1. All of us thought the exercise interesting.
2. We believe him a responsible person.
3. The book made him famous overnight.
4. We all call him Richard.

 

4. S+ Vt+ IO(間接受詞)+DO(直接受詞) 〔授與動詞句型〕:這類動詞表達“給”的意思,帶有兩個受詞,間接受詞指人或機構,直接受詞則指事物。另外,授與動詞亦可轉換為帶有介系詞的結構,即S+ Vt+ DO+ to或for+ IO。授與動詞包括give, bring, write, lend, show, send, pay, owe(欠), hand(交給) 〔上列動詞若用介系詞通常用for〕,buy, make(做給), order(點菜),〔上列動詞介系詞用for〕
例:
1. He lent me some books. →He lent some books to me.
2. David handed his father a letter. →David handed a letter to his father.
3. John bought his son a new bicycle. →John bought a new bicycle for his son.

 

5. S+ LV+ SC (聯輟動詞句型):這類動詞的重點在於後面應接名詞或形容詞來當主詞補語(SC),請注意,若接名詞則此名詞在語意上要等於主詞。聯輟動詞包括(a)be動詞,表達“是”;(b)become, grow, turn, get等動詞,表達“變成”;(c)remain, stay, keep等動詞,表達“仍然”;(d)seem, appear, look等動詞,表達“似乎”;(e)feel, taste, smell, sound等感官動詞。
例:
1. He finally became a millionaire.
2. Despite the danger, they remained calm(冷靜的).
3. The students appeared confused. (confused為過去分詞當形容詞)
4. The music sounds sweet.
重點思索:關於基本句型一定要掌握住動詞後面跟甚麼結構,這也是每次必考的重點,尤其要特別熟悉句型3、4、5三種。