英文文法-時態

時態

動詞時態是每年必考的重點,判斷時態最簡捷的方是抓時間副詞或另一個動詞。為了求準、求快,以下即以精要的原則來分析動詞時態。

 

A. 簡單式

1. 現在簡單式:用以表達事實真理及現存的狀態、風俗、習慣等等。
例:
1. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. (事實)
2. Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. (事實)
3. The Browns spend every summer in the village. (習慣)
4. Whenever he has free time, he goes to the theatre. (習慣)
2. 過去簡單式:用以表達過去的狀態或過去某一點所發生的事。
例:
1. He bought a new car ten days ago.
2. The Olympics of 1988 took place (舉行) in Seoul, Korea.
3. In 1675, all towns in the country were required to have schools.
4. Whenever he stayed home in the evening, he went to bed early.
3. 未來簡單式:用以表達未來某一點將要發生的事情,常見的結構為(a)shall, will, should, ought to+原形動詞,或(b)be going to+原形動詞。
例:
1. I will telephone you next Friday.
2. I am going to talk to Professor Smith tomorrow.
3. You should hand in your paper as soon as possible.

 

B. 進行式

1. 現在進行式:用以表達目前正在進行的動作或未來已孜排之計畫。
例:
1. Chris is studying in the library.
2. After lunch, I am meeting a friend of mine. (表達未來之計畫)
2. 過去進行式:用以表達過去某一點正在進行的動作。不過真正考詴的重點在於過去進行式與過去簡單式連用,以表達當過去某項動作正在進行(用過去進行式),突然又有另一個動作發生(用過去簡單式)。
例:
1. What were you doing at 10:00 last night? I was studying.
2. While I was taking a shower, the telephone rang.
3. I was walking home when I met Steve.
3. 未來進行式:用以表示未來某點正要進行的動作,其結構為“will, shall+ be+ Ving”。
例:
1. At this time tomorrow, I will be sitting in the class.

 

C. 完成式

1. 現在完成式:用以表達過去某一點所發生的事情一直延伸到現在,通常與現在完成式連用的副詞片語有since(自從),so far=up to now(到目前為止),recently(最近),in recent years。
例:
1. I have lived in San Francisco since 1960.
2. I have started learning Japanese recently.
3. I have met many people since I came here in June.
請注意,since是考詴的一大重點,其結構主要為“S+ have+ p.p.+ since+過去時間定點”或“S+ have+ p.p.+ since+ S+過去簡單式”。
2. 過去完成式:通常與過去簡單式連用,以表達動作完成的先後,先完成者用過去完成式,後完成者用過去簡單式。
例:
1. When we arrived, the lecture had begun.
2. My parents had already eaten when I got home.
3. 未來完成式:用以表達未來將要完成的動作,若有“by+未來時間”的結構出現,則強烈暗示要用未來完成式。
例:
1. By next March, I will have graduated.
2. By 1999, I shall have lived in Hony Kong for ten years.

 

D. 其它關於時態的考詴要點

1. 進行式通常是表達動作正在進行,凡是表示狀態者不可用進行式,包括(a)事實真理,(b)擁有,如have, own, possess, belong to,(c)位於,如be located, be situated,(d)內心知覺的抽象動詞,如like, dislike, love, hate, know, understand, mean, believe, doubt等等。
例:
1. The house belongs to John.
2. We understand what you mean.
2. 表達時間(如when, while, as soon as, before, after, until)或條件(如unless“除非”,if“假如”,as long as“只要”)的副詞子句要用現在式代替未來,但主要子句仍然用未來式。
例:
1. After I get home, I will eat dinner.
2. As soon as the taxi comes, we will be able to leave for the airport.
3. If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home.